In: Rao GP, Baranawal VK, Mandal B, Rishi N (eds). Papaya leaf curl virus Index. Plant Sci 228:11–25, Gilbertson RL, Rojas M, Natwick E (2011) Development of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for whitefly (, Gilbertson RL, Batuman O, Webster CG, Adkins S (2015) Role of the insect supervectors, Gillette WK, Meade TJ, Jeffrey JL, Petty IT (1998) Genetic determinants of host-specificity in bipartite geminivirus DNA A components. Leaf Curl of Papaya: The disease is transmitted by the vector white fly (Bemisia tabaci). : 7401, Fontes EPB, Santos AA, Luz DF, Waclawovsky AJ, Chory J (2004) The geminivirus NSP acts as virulence factor to suppress an innate transmembrane receptor kinase-mediated defense signaling. References: (1) A. Nadeem et al. Curr Sci 84:341–354, Dawson WO, Hilf ME (1992) Host range determination of plant viruses. Ann Appl Biol 140:109–127. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service: E-626. Other symptoms include the thickening of the leaf veins, sometimes with the formation of outgrowths. Ali Z, Abulfaraj A, Idris A, Ali S, Tashkandi M, Mahfouz M (2015) CRISPR/Cas9-mediated viral interference in plants. Plant Pathol. Therefore, keeping in view above fact, the present research work was carried out on survey, diagnosis and identification of resistance source of leaf curl virus infecting papaya (Carica papaya L.)” in India. Papaya leaf curl disease is caused by Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV), a begomovirus naturally transmitted through whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci ). 1Institute of Plant Virology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002 China. Research Signpost, Trivandrum. Sci Hortic 201:346–354, Haung JF, Zhou XP (2006) First report of papaya leaf curl China virus infecting, Hemambara HS, Yogesh MS (2014) Production and marketing problems of papaya growers in north Karnataka. Indian Phytopath 68(1):123–126, Edelbaum D, Gorovits R, Sasaki S, Ikegami M, Czosnek H (2008) Expressing a whitefly GroEL protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants confers tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus and cucumber mosaic virus, but not to grapevine virus A or tobacco mosaic virus. Several diagnostic techniques especially molecular techniques have been developed to detect the begomoviruses at early stages of infection to control the further spread of the begomovirus, but so far not much reports are available to control the begomoviral infection at later stage. Nat Plants 1:144. doi: Khalil RR, Bassiouny FM, El-Dougdoug KA, Abo-Elmaty S, Yousef MS (2014) A dramatic physiological and anatomical changes of tomato plants infecting with tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:527–555, Day AG, Bejarano ER, Buck KW, Burrell M, Lichtenstein CP (1991) Expression of an antisense viral gene in transgenic tobacco confers resistance to the DNA virus tomato golden mosaic virus. Leaf margins get curled downwards and inwards with dark greenish, thick veins (Fig. Sometimes the petioles are twisted. Iqbal Z, Sattar MN, Shafiq M (2016) CRISPR/Cas9: a tool to circumscribe cotton leaf curl disease. Subtrop Plant Sci 64:49–53, Lilley DMJ (2003) The origins of RNA catalysis in ribozymes. doi: Prasad JS, Verma RAB (1980) Efficacy of certain antibiotics in the control of postharvest decay of papaya fruits. Raven press, New York, p 364, Flint ML (2015) Integrated pest management for homes, gardens, and landscapes. These symptoms are similar to those of cotton leaf curl disease. Hortic Bras 34:8–18. Papaya leaf curl disease was first recorded in India in 1930's and shown to be transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. World J Microb Biot 14:931–932, Hallan V, Saxena S, Singh BP (1998b) Yellow net of, Hanson P, Lu SF, Wang JF, Chen W, Kenyon L et al (2016) Conventional and molecular marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of genes for multiple disease resistance in tomato. J Appl Hortic 18(1):80–84, Schubert S, Kurreck J (2004) Ribozyme- and deoxyribozyme-strategies for medical applications. Naturwissenschaften 98:473–492, Javaid S, Amin I, Jander G, Mukhtar Z (2016) A transgenic approach to control hemipteran insects by expressing insecticidal genes under phloem-specific promoters. Plant Physiol 151:925–935, Briddon RW, Brown JK, Moriones E, Stanley J, Zerbini M, Zhou X, Fauquet CM (2008) Recommendations for the classification and nomenclature of the DNA-βsatellites of begomoviruses. Control: Same as in Papaya mosaic virus. Identity Taxonomic Tree Distribution Table Vectors and Intermediate Hosts References Distribution Maps Summary. (Papaya leaf curl virus.) Hi Sudan, how many plants are infected? Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 60:231–241, Galvez LC, Banerjee J, Pinar H, Mitra A (2014) Engineered plant virus resistance. IInd international symposium on papaya, ISHS Acta hort 851, Raza A, Malik HJ, Shafiq M, Amin I, Scheffler JA, Scheffler BE et al (2016) RNA interference based approach to down regulate osmoregulators of whitefly (. It gets a fair amount of sunshine. Virology 291:110–125. Int J Bioinforma Res Appl 9(1):3–12, Saxena S, Singh VK, Verma S (2016) PCR mediated detection of sex and PaLCuV infection in papaya- a review. The most obvious symptoms of this disease are the downward or inward curling leaves. Citrifrut 29(1):28–34, Luan JB, Li JM, Varela N, Wang YL, Li FF, Bao YY, Zhang CX, Liu SS, Wang XW (2011) Global analysis of the transcriptional response of whitefly to, Macpherson JL, Boyd MP, Arndt AJ, Todd AV, Fanning GC, Ely JA, Elliott F, Knop A, Raponi M et al (2005) Long-term survival and concomitant gene expression of ribozyme-transduced CD4+ T-lymphocytes in HIV-infected patients. Papaya Leaf Curl Guangdong Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus Associated with Leaf Curl Disease of Tobacco in China Caixia Yang. Indian J Exp Biol 36:229–232, Saxena S, Hallan V, Singh BP, Sane PV (1998c) Nucleotide sequence and inter-geminiviral homologies of the DNA A of papaya leaf curl geminivirus from India. J Dev Stud 43(1):177–191, Grishok A, Pasquinelli AE, Conte D, Li N, Parrish S, Ha I, Baillie DL, Fire A, Ruvkun G, Mello CC (2001) Genes and mechanisms related to RNA interference regulate expression of the small temporal RNAs that control, Guo T, Guo Q, Cui X, Liu Y et al (2015) Comparison of transmission of papaya leaf curl China virus among four cryptic species of the whitefly, Hallan V, Saxena S, Singh BP (1998a) Ageratum, croton and malvastrum harbour geminiviruses: evidence through PCR amplification. Genome Biol 16:238. doi: Anderson PK, Cunningham AA, Patel NG, Morales FJ et al (2004) Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology drivers. These data demonstrated that a geminivirus may be the causative agent of this papaya disease. India is the largest producer of papaya in the world. There are over 17 diseases caused by fungi, viruses, mycoplasma and nematodes, which affect papaya plant all over the world. The leaf curl disease is caused by a complex of whitefly ( … J Plant Path 91(4 - Supplement):S4–107, Kunik T, Salomon R, Zamair D, Zeidan M, Michelson I, Gafni Y, Czosnek H (1994) Transgenic tomato plants expressing the tomato yellow leaf curl virus capsid protein are resistant to the virus. Environ Entomol 30(2):394–399, Aragao FJ, Faria JC (2009) First transgenic geminivirus-resistant plant in the field. Posted: September 12, 2017, Posted by: Dr. Ravishankar Narayana Caused by begomovirus, Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV) (2), this disease was discovered in the papaya orchards of southern Taiwan in 2002. Did you notice any insects, particularly whiteflies? Of these about 5-6 diseases like collar rot, damping off, anthracnose, mosaic and leaf curl are serious problems in many papaya growing areas of the world. AgriLifeExtension.tamu.edu, Maule AJ, Caranta C, Boulton MI (2007) Sources of natural resistance to plant viruses: status and prospects. Plant Cell 2:279–289, Niu QW, Lin SS, Reyes JL, Chen KC, Wu HW, Yeh SD, Chua NH (2006) Expression of artificial microRNAs in transgenic, Pantoja A, Follett PA, Villanueva-Jiménez JA (2002) Pests of papaya. I have many papaya trees, and this is the only one that is like this. Pear pear orange red spots grow on the upper leaf surface. Papaya plants with virus-disease-like symptoms were observed in back yards and commercial groves in Multan, Pakistan. India, Posted by: sudan To identify alternative hosts of this virus, a survey of weed samples with typical leaf‐curling, vein‐thickening and yellow‐vein symptoms were collected in papaya‐growing areas. This disease is of moderate incidence and widely distributed in India. Slice of nature virgin papaya oil cold pressed 100 pure papaya seed oil with papaya enzyme papain papaya oil for face body 1 oz. Rice Research Station, PMB 736, Freetown, Sierra Leone, Plant virology in sub-Saharan Africa, Thakur N, Upadhyay SK, Verma PC, Chandrashekar K, Tuli R, Singh PK (2014) Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of, Thomas KM, Krishnaswamy CS (1939) Leaf crinkle: a transmissible disease of papaya. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Leaf curl disease is one of the major diseases in the World caused by a virus. doi: Sagar SB, Parmar HC, Darji VB (2012) Economics of production of papaya in middle Gujarat region of Gujarat, India. Publ. Papaya leaf is also commonly known for its ability to fight against infection caused by virus such as common cold or influenza. A proceeding of IInd IS on papaya. Arch Virol 158:531–542. p 248. Calif. Agric. Is there any other crops surrounding? Hortic Environ Biotechnol 57(2):113–122. Nat Biotechnol 27:1086–1088, Ateyyat MA, Shatnawi M, Mohammad SA (2009) Culturable Whitefly associated bacteria and their potential as biological control agents 2(3):139–144, Azzam OJ, Frazer D, La Rosa D, Beaver JS, Ahlquist P, Maxwell DP (1994) Whitefly transmission and efficient ssDNA accumulation of bean golden mosaic geminivirus require functional coat protein. papaya leaf curl (PalCV) particularly in northern parts of India. In: Kole C (ed) Genome mapping and molecular breeding in plants- fruits and nuts, vol 4. Plant Dis 81(11):1333, Napoli C, Lemieux C, Jorgensen R (1990) Introduction of chimeric chalcone synthase gene into Petunia results in reversible cosuppression of homologous genes in trans. This chapter provides the information about many aspects like causal pathogen, vector responsible for disease spread/transmission, host range and phylogenetic analysis of virus associated with the papaya leaf curl disease, and different resistance approaches for possible management of the disease.    The leaves become leathery, brittle and distorted. I have watered this (and the other trees) with plenty of water. Next to each name within this complete list is the virus family to. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. The main symptoms are downward and inward rolling of top leaves and thickening of veins. doi: Cheng YH, Deng TC, Chen CC et al (2014) First report of, Culik MP, Martins DDS (2004) First record of, Culik MP, Martins DDS, Ventura JA (2003) Índice de artrópodes pragas do mamoeiro (, Czosnek H (2008) Acquisition, circulation and transmission of begomoviruses by their whitefly vectors. Plant Physiol 142:7–20, Usman N, Blatt LM (2000) Nuclease-resistant synthetic ribozymes: developing a new class of therapeutics. J Agric Tech 10(5):1213–1229, Khan MS, Tiwari AK, Ji SH, Chun SC (2012), Khan MS, Tiwari AK, Khan AA, Ji SH, Chun SC (2013), Khan MS, Tiwari AK, Raj SK, Srivastava A, Ji SH, Chun SC (2014) Molecular epidemiology of begomoviruses occurring on vegetables, grain legume and weed species in Terai belt of north India. This is a preview of subscription content, Abel PP, Nelson RS, De B, Hoffmann N, Rogers SG, Fraley RT, Beachy RN (1986) Delay of disease development in transgenic plants that express the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene. Chapter Plant viruses: evolution and management, pp 189–203, Morales FJ (2001) Conventional breeding for resistance to, Morroni M, Thompson JR, Tepfer M (2008) Twenty years of transgenic plants resistant to cucumber mosaic virus. Sahu AK, Nehra C, Gaur RK (2015) Molecular diversity of monopartite begomovirus coat protein and betasatellite associated with different crop species in India. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Begomoviruses: Occurrence and Management in Asia and Africa IInd IS on Papaya Acta hort: 465–472. Mol Plant Pathol 8:223–231. J Virol 87:9691–9706. Virology 204:289–296. Papaya leaf curl disease Disease symptoms Curling, crinkling and distortion of leaves, reduction of leaf lamina, rolling of leaf margins inward and downward, thickening of veins. Papaya has considerable economic importance to agriculture in India. Bio/Technology 12:500–504. Not logged in Main symptoms of papaya leaf curl disease are inward/outward curling of plant leaves, vein thickening, and stunted plant growth with small distorted fruits or no fruits. First Report of Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl Guangdong virus on Passion Fruit in Taiwan. 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