Coconut oil is needed for the good absorption of fat and calcium from infant formulas. Capric acid, another fatty acid found in coconut, also has antimicrobial activities. 2). Refined Coconut Oil Composition. Virgin coconut oil is defined by Codex alimentarius as oil extracted from fresh coconut meat and processed using physical and natural processes (Codex alimentarius, 1999). The sample treated with megasonics had a dense cream layer that was clearly separated from the sediment when compared to the control (without megasonics), where separation was less evident. What are the components of coconut oil that make it so amazing? Fresh coconut meat was ground to particle sizes ranging from 1–4 mm. In wet milling, coconut kernel is disintegrated using a colloidal mill and mixed with a small amount of water before being pressed through the expeller. VCO has many health benefits, such as preventing the oxidation of low density lipoprotein lipid increasing the antioxidant enzymes. Many of these claims center around the high lauric acid (50%) content of coconut oil. Coconuts and coconut oil may provide a mellow flavor and creamy texture to some formulations and recipes. A simplified example of an aqueous-based extraction process is shown in Fig. Monolaurin is antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal. Of the saturated fatty acids, coconut oil is primarily 44.6% lauric acid, 16.8% myristic acid and 8.2% palmitic acid, although it contains seven different saturated fatty acids in total. Copra, either shipped to overseas countries or processed locally, is the almost-exclusive raw material for producing coconut oil. For cooking and toiletry purposes, it is commonly used in the form of filtered coconut oil. This quality makes it suitable for storage without deterioration. Reports indicate that monolaurin is capable of destroying lipid-coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, influenza, various pathological bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes and Helicobactor pylori, and protozoa such as Giardia lamblia. Coconut oil is 100% fat, 80-90% of which is saturated fat. SFAs in coconut oil increase serum HDL cholesterol more than LDL cholesterol to give a more favorable lipid profile relative to dietary carbohydrates. Dry milling is a conventional method used in the coconut oil extraction industry. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women Affiliations 1 Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK. It isn’t just a great tasting oil that you can use anywhere. Note that each gram of fat is equivalent to 9 calories. It’s because the majority of saturated fats found in coconut oil are medium-chain triglycerides. The full utilization and conversion of this material into high-value products will not only provide greater returns, but also minimize contamination due to biological and solvent residues. In vivo studies on Wistar albino rats prove that VCO samples are better in reducing hypercholesterimia and diabetes. Figure 4.9. Details of fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition are presented in Table 2.6. A study on the commercial virgin coconut oil (VCO) available in the Malaysian and Indonesian market was conducted. (1996) extracted coconut oil from the coconut milk by breaking the emulsion. Some formerly high-oil-producing countries have significantly reduced their production of oil because of the higher price that can be obtained for fresh nuts. This result is supported by the data shown in Fig. It also contains sufficient amounts of vitamin K, and E. Vitamin K helps in wound healing while vitamin E works as an antioxidant that protects your skin cells from damage. Coconut oil is very different from most other cooking oils and contains a unique composition of fatty acids. The table showing the types of fatty acid in it is displayed below. J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011. Consider using coconut oil to impart blander-tasting vegetables with more tropical notes, such as green beans or other legumes, or zucchini and other squashes. They don’t stay long in our body and contain a lot of beneficial properties. Conventional extraction methods are pressing or solvent extraction. Gary R. List, in Functional Dietary Lipids, 2016. Consumption of coconut oil is now estimated at 3.5 MT/annum. Coconut oil is sold as virgin, organic expeller pressed, and expeller pressed oils. Coconut oil contains a high concentration of lauric acid (about 50%), a fatty acid with a strong affinity for proteins found in the hair. Fat Composition Analysis Available data suggests that 100 g of coconut oil contains: 6.39% of monounsaturated fat, 1.72% of polyunsaturated fat, and 83.26% of saturated fat out of a total lipid of 99.06 g. The amount of trans fat is Coconut oil and palmkernel oil are similar to one another in their fatty acid composition and differ so much from other commodity oils that they can be considered together. 4 Quality requirements and essential composition 4.1 General requirements 4.1.1 Virgin coconut oil shall be free from foreign and/or rancid odour and/or taste. Interestingly, in mice with stress-induced injury, coconut oil was recently shown to improve lipid profile and restore oxidative stress. Coconut oil is used as a cooking fat, hair oil, body oil, and industrial oil. Nevertheless, aqueous extraction provides the opportunity to fully utilize food and nonfood materials in the coconut toward the production of value-added bioproducts. Virgin coconut oil is obtained from the fresh mature kernel by mechanical or natural means with or without the application of heat, which do not lead to alteration of the oil (Asian and Pacific Coconut Community, 2003). Lauric acid is known to possess antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal qualities. Shredded coconut oil meat in water (1:3 ratio) nonmegasonic (left) and megasonic treated (right) at 2 MHz, 10 min, and 230 W: (A) photograph of the coconut meat:water mixture after 10 min; (B) micrograph of the top layer after settling for 30 min at 60°C (oil stained with Nile Red). The clear oil may be further processed to remove undesirable colors, flavors and aromas (Foale, 2003). Monolaurin is a monogylceride capable of destroying lipid-coated viruses such as HIV/herpes, measles, pathogenic bacteria, and giardia lamblia protozoa. Coconut oil is the preferred source of octanoic and decanoic acids. The use of these coconut products also adds some texture to some formulations and recipes due to the fat in the coconuts, and to the dried, shredded consistency of the coconut meat. Visit ChemicalBook To find more Coconut oil(8001-31-8) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. Not only will coconut oil help root vegetables caramelize, it will lend its essence to ordinary white or yellow potatoes, or bring sweet potatoes to a new pinnacle of taste. For comparison, a younger coconut between eight to nine months old has 18-26% oil content, whereas a mature nut can have up to 43% oil content on a wet basis. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Coconut oil is extracted from a coconut kernel. It can either be refined or unrefined. A 1981 study of populations on several Polynesian atolls, where coconut oil was the chief source of calories, reported both groups exhibited positive vascular health. P. Juliano, K. Knoerzer, in Innovative Food Processing Technologies, 2016. Industrial grade fats (palm fat and tallow) and oils (palm kernel and coconut oil) were used and provided by Jabonera Potosina. Based on data collected by the United States Department of Agriculture, 1 tbsp. J.J. Lal, ... M. Indira, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. Coconut oil may not be too rich in micronutrients. McGlone et al. Another frequently used method of extraction to obtain high oil yield is double pressing with either a hydraulic press or expellers (Gopala et al., 2010). As such, coconut oil is popular for use in personal care products. Coconut cream is coconut “milk” with more fat, less water and generally a greater coconut taste. (1986) and Tano-Debrah & Ohta (1997) have investigated aqueous extraction of coconut oil with added exogenous enzymes (proteases, amylases, polygalacturonases, cellulases, pectinases or combinations of enzymes) achieving oil yields ranging from 12–80% from fresh or dried coconut meat. Table 4. Feeding coconut oil results in an increase in HDL cholesterol. Studies made on humans living on Pacific Islands, where coconut oil furnishes 30–60% of calories, have shown nearly nonexistent rates of cardiovascular disease, and the inhabitants were healthy and trim. Coconut oil composes of more than 85% of saturated fats. Background: Coconut oil is high in saturated fat and may, therefore, raise serum cholesterol concentrations, but beneficial effects on other cardiovascular risk factors have also been suggested. Coconut oil is considered a lauric oil whose fatty acid composition is high in lauric acid (45–50%). Composition of Coconut Oil According to the National Nutrient Database published by the United States Department of Agriculture, one tablespoon of coconut oil provides 121 kilocalories, 13.7 grams total lipid (fat), 0 grams 2. Coconuts. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. In a 100 gram reference amount Hydrogenated coconut oil is widely used as a spray oil for crackers and serves as a moisture barrier and preserves shelf life. (2003) and Che Man et al. Coconut oil is mostly produced by a solvent extraction process. The particular mineral found in coconut oil is iron. The American Heart Association states that intake of foods high in saturated fats should be limited. If you accidentally add to much salt, add a little more honey. Chemical Properties. Coconut oil is popular among chefs for a variety of foods and drinks. Coconut oil is a fat consisting of about 90% saturated fat. Power-driven rotaries and expellers are used for extracting oil from copra. However, in the presence of moisture and lipase, the short chain trigylcerides may undergo hydrolysis, giving rise to soapy flavors. This mixture was then malaxed with and without Alcalase 2.4L FG (Novozyme) protease enzyme. The oil of the nut is used to make medicine. But under normal conditions, the possibility of essential fatty acid deficiency as such is quite remote, since their presence in other food items will offset any deficiency in coconut oil. You can shrug off the worry since experts have already claimed that these saturated fats aren’t as harmful as you think. It’s because the majority of saturated fats found in coconut oil are medium-chain triglycerides. Coconut oil, on the other hand, is better as cooking oil, for fighting infections, and as a conditioning ingredient. 4.8). Both oils may be subject to fractionation, hydrogenation and interesterification (often in a blend with a conventional C16/18 oil) to extend their range of use. Coconut oil is considered a lauric oil whose fatty acid composition is high in lauric acid (45–50%). The flavor and aroma of coconut oil are attributed to δ-octalactone. Its only monounsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid while its only polyunsaturated fatty acid is linoleic acid. This makes up nearly 60 percent of your daily recommended saturated fat intake. 4.8. Marie Wong, ... Leandro Ravetti, in Green Vegetable Oil Processing, 2014. So, a tablespoon of coconut oil contains about 120 calories. Also present in trace amounts are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. The wet process of coconut oil extraction has been gaining in popularity, and studies have been carried out to compare oils extracted by dry and wet processes (Rajamohan and Nevin, 2009). Hence, it has been recommended in infant formulas. The oil is In pigs, replacement of standard diet with coconut oil modulates the adipose tissue gene expression and fatty acid composition, with minimal effect on serum lipid profile. Sant’Anna et al. Copra, which is obtained by drying coconuts, is the source of coconut oil. Moreover, coconut oil is a rich source of medium chain triglycerides with carbon numbers falling mostly in the C32 to C44 range. These medium-chain triglycerides or medium-chain fatty acids have different chemical constituents from other saturated fats. Chemical composition: Among the chief constituents, coconut oil also has: The two oils have been reviewed by Pantzaris and Yusof Basiron (2002). They are easily digested and sent directly to the liver, where they are converted to energy rather than stored as fat. You may think badly about fats, but our body needs it. 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