48. [139] [329] Kerala is one of the first states in India to form a welfare policy for the transgender community. [535] Another traditional sport of Kerala is the boat race, especially the race of Snake boats. Kerala is the state with the lowest positive population growth rate in India (3.44%) and has a density of 860 people per km. [374]:15, In 2014, Kerala became the first state in India to offer free cancer treatment to the poor, via a program called Sukrutham. This article is about the Indian state. 44. 87. [427][428] In the early decades of the 19th century, the modern educational transformation of Kerala was triggered by the efforts of the Church Mission Society missionaries to promote mass education. Kerala is famous for being a pioneer in Ayurveda. 2015. [466] Processions often include traditional music such as Panchari melam or Panchavadyam. [169] Mean annual temperatures range from 25.0–27.5 °C in the coastal lowlands to 20.0–22.5 °C in the eastern highlands. He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day), and the matrilineal system of succession. Its exotic wildlife also makes it an incredible destination for wildlife enthusiasts. [41], Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura and a prototypical just king, who ruled the earth from Kerala. There is a belief that, once a year during the Onam festival, Mahabali returns to Kerala. According to the Economic Times[567] Kerala netted a record revenue of INR 36,528.01 crore from the tourism sector in 2018, clocking an increase of Rs 2,874.33 crore from the previous year. [426]:1, The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. The KITE Kerala is a state owned special purpose company under education department of the Government of Kerala. [168]:65, Most of the biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. 6. [367] According to a study commissioned by Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropic organisation, Kerala is considered to be the best place to die in India based on the state's provision of palliative care for patients with serious illnesses. [37][38] According to the 17th-century Malayalam work Keralolpathi, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the axe-wielding warrior sage Parasurama, the sixth avatar of Vishnu (hence, Kerala is also called Parasurama Kshetram 'The Land of Parasurama'[39]). The state's only drive-in beach, Muzhappilangad in Kannur, which stretches across five kilometres of sand, was chosen by the BBC as one of the top six drive-in beaches[568] in the world in 2016. This was the result of Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma's popularisation of the genre in the 19th century. The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. [473] The total duration of Onam is 10 days and it is celebrated all across Kerala. 90. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956. The airport was awarded ‘Champion of the Earth’ by the United Nations for its contribution towards the environment. One of the unknown and interesting facts about this state is that the first soil museum in India is located at Parottukonam, Kerala. [292] As of 2013[update], Kerala had the highest road accident rate in the country, with most fatal accidents taking place along the state's national highways.[293]. Cast Me Out If You Will. The Puranas. Moolamattom Power Station, located in Idukki district of Kerala, is the biggest underground hydro-electric project in India. Lagoons and lakes are the major components of these backwaters which run parallel to the Arabian Sea. ), Weil, Shalva. Kerala is known for the conservation of Sanskrit language. Highest gold consumption in the country Source. The history of Kerala as an Indian state in its current form begins post-independence. [103] The Zamorin of Kozhikode permitted the new visitors to trade with his subjects such that Portuguese trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and a fort. Calicut International Airport, which was opened in 1988, is the second-oldest existing airport in Kerala and the oldest in the Malabar region. The beautiful Arabian Sea in the west along with the backwaters make for a picturesque backdrop. It is a small state, constituting only about 1 percent of the total area of the country. [104] Fort St Angelo or St. Angelo Fort was built at Kannur in 1505 and Fort St Thomas was built at Kollam(Quilon) in 1518 by the Portuguese. India's Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art and Life-Cycle, Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2009. Anju Bobby George of Kerala was the first Malayali woman gold medalist in world Athletic Championship. [348][349] This focus was maintained by Kerala's post-independence government. [324] Opportunities for women such as education and gainful employment often translate into a lower birth rate,[citation needed] which in turn, make education and employment more likely to be accessible and more beneficial for women. [548] The Indian Hockey team captain P. R. Shreejesh, ace goalkeeper hails from Kerala. – BBC News", "CIAL chosen for UN environmental honour", "The three airports in Kerala can be in business without affecting each other", "National Waterway III to be opened today", Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901, "Size, Growth Rate and Distribution of Population", "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011", "Competitive religious entrepreneurs: Christian missionaries and female education in colonial and post-colonial India", "Kerala Government Has Unveiled A Policy To Enforce Constitutional Rights Of Transgenders", "Why Kerala's free sex-change surgeries will offer a new lifeline for the transgender community", "After She-Taxi, Kerala to launch G-Taxi for transgenders", "How Kerala left the country behind on transgender rights", "Affirming their right, they march with pride", "Kerala govt passes order to use 'transgender' instead of 'third/other gender, "Only 'transgender' in official communication", "India Human Development Report 2011: Towards Social Inclusion", "Human Development Index rose 21 per cent; Kerala tops chart", "Growth, reforms lift living standards in India: Human development Index", "Tripura tops literacy rate with 94.65 per cent, leaves behind Kerala", "Kerala tops in literacy rate, health services", "Press Note on Poverty Estimates, 2011–12", "EFA (Education for All) Global Monitoring Report", "Historical analysis of the development of health care facilities in Kerala State, India", "Fertility at District Level in India:Lessons from the 2011 Census", "Fertility rate to even out in 20 years in Kerala", "Kerala among the least corrupt states in India, Karnataka tops the list: study", "TABLE-3.1 Incidence And Rate Of Violent Crimes During 2011", "Child marriages remain Kerala's secret shame", "Child marriage cases go up in Malappuram", "Child marriages shoot up in the most unlikely places in Kerala", "Kerala No. [170] As of 2004[update], over 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. [150][151] The state's largest lake Vembanad, dominates the backwaters; it lies between Alappuzha and Kochi and is about 200 km2 (77 sq mi) in area. Thenmala of Kerala was the first eco-tourism project in India. A canal 205 kilometres (127 mi) long, National Waterway 3, runs between Kottapuram and Kollam, which is included in the East-Coast Canal. [437] After the first 10 years of schooling, students typically enroll in Higher Secondary Schooling in one of the three major streams—liberal arts, commerce, or science. [262] The key agricultural staple is rice, with varieties grown in extensive paddy fields. Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways operates all railway lines in the state connecting most major towns and cities except those in the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad. In the 15th century, the status of Cochin was reduced to a vassal state of Kozhikode. [24] This contradicts the theory that kera is from 'coconut tree'. Besides its environmental importance, it is also worshipped by many tribes living in the area. The Kerala Education Act introduced in 1958 gave a tremendous boost to the literacy rate in the state, and played a major role in making it the most literate state in India. They were also the runners-up eight times.[544]. Grab the deal and start packing your bags for an indelible holiday with Tour My India. It is a government initiative that provides care and services for abandoned children. Kozhikode in Kerala had the first woman police station in the state. Dear Kashmir. [110][111][112] In the 18th Century, Travancore King Sree Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma annexed all the kingdoms up to Cochin through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to pre-eminence in Kerala. A Malayalam version of Google News was launched in September 2008. [205] GSDP growth; 11.4% in 2018-2019[205] and 10.5% in 2017-2018[205] had been high compared to an average of 2.3% annually in the 1980s and between 5.1%[206]:8 and 5.99%[207] in the 1990s. This is believed to be an underestimate as private hospitals may not be reporting their figures. 89. In 2012, National Geographic's Traveller magazine named Kerala as one of the "ten paradises of the world"[550][551] and "50 must see destinations of a lifetime". The total growth of the farm sector has recorded a 4.39% increase in 2012–13, over a paltry 1.3% growth in the previous fiscal year. [93] Finally, the Kulasekhara dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas. The famous Sree Sankaracharya Sanskrit University is located in Ernakulam district of Kerala. Kerala is named after the vast coconut plantations in the state. [388][389] Notable has been the occurrence of Cheraman Perumal Tajuddin, the Hindu King that moved to Arabia to meet the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and converted to Islam. Vasudevan Nair and O.N.V. Historians do not rule out the possibility of Islam being introduced to Kerala as early as the seventh century CE. [352] The state also is regarded as the "least corrupt Indian state" according to the surveys conducted by CMS Indian Corruption Study (CMS-ICS)[353] Transparency International (2005)[354] and India Today (1997). The state has numerous backwaters, which are used for commercial inland navigation. [75] The Israeli (Jewish) connection with Kerala started in 573 BCE. The tertiary sector comprises services such as transport, storage, communications, tourism, banking, insurance and real estate. [92] The social system became fractured with divisions on caste lines. "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu." [373] Ayurveda,[374]:13 siddha, and endangered and endemic modes of traditional medicine, including kalari, marmachikitsa and vishavaidyam, are practised. [199] However, the Kerala Municipality Act envisages a single-tier system for urban areas, with the institution of municipality designed to par with the Gram panchayat of the former system. In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. 52. [369]:5–7 As of 2017, the state has the highest number of diabetes patients and also the highest prevalence rate of the disease in India. [16][17] Kerala has the lowest positive population growth rate in India, 3.44%; the highest Human Development Index (HDI), 0.784 in 2018 (0.712 in 2015); the highest literacy rate, 96.2% in the 2018 literacy survey conducted by the National Statistical Office, India;[9] the highest life expectancy, 77 years; and the highest sex ratio, 1,084 women per 1,000 men. The literacy rate for women in Kerala is one of the highest in all of Asia. 61. [397][398], Ancient Christian tradition says that Christianity reached the shores of Kerala in 52 CE with the arrival of Thomas the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. [56]:110 41 of Kerala's west-flowing rivers,[140] and 3 of its east-flowing ones originate in this region. Antherjanam, Lalithambika. "The Kerala model in the time of COVID19: Rethinking state, society and democracy. Kerala's birds include the Malabar trogon, the great hornbill, Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern hill myna. [234] The 2013 Tendulkar Committee Report on poverty estimated that the percentages of the population living below the poverty line in rural and urban Kerala are 9.14% and 4.97%, respectively. New York: The Feminist Press, 1997. For other uses, see. Eravikulam is the first and largest national park in Kerala. Long waiting lists for kidney donations has stimulated illegal trade in human kidneys, and prompted the establishment of the Kidney Federation of India which aims to support financially disadvantaged patients. Vellayani is a beautiful freshwater lake and is the southernmost freshwater lake in Kerala. National Family Health Survey says that in Kerala, almost all of the infants are born in medical institutions and hospitals. [184], There are six Municipal corporations in Kerala that govern Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode and Kannur. It runs parallel to NH-66. In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. This is a letter I'd write to you begging your pardon. [381], Hinduism is the most widely professed faith in Kerala, with significant Muslim and Christian minorities. Kerala's annual total of road accidents is among the nation's highest. [325] The child marriage is lower in Kerala.The Malappuram district has the highest number of child marriage and the number of such cases are increasing in Malappuram. [342], According to the 2011 census, Kerala has the highest literacy rate (94%) among Indian states. [20] The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to the Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was divided into thirty small warring principalities; the most powerful of them were the kingdom of Zamorin of Kozhikode in the north, Venad in the south, Kochi in the middle, and Kannur in the far north. The state's coastline extends for 595 kilometres (370 mi), and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the state's income. [360], In 2015, Kerala had the highest conviction rate of any state, over 77%. VPN is the best — "Once I Vodafone VPN can help my ISP slow down & Set Up of 160mbps throttled to vodafone throttling wall, twitch a VPN. [531] Broadband Internet services are widely available throughout the state; some of the major ISPs are BSNL, Asianet Satellite Communications, Reliance Communications, Airtel, Vodafone Idea Limited, MTS, RailWire and VSNL. 24. "Legacies of matriliny: The place of women and the 'Kerala model'. [133], The state is wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats. Kerala is the largest producer of rubber in India. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. [91] For local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.[90]. The Malabar region, in the northern part of Kerala, had been a part of the Madras province of British India, which later became a part of the Madras State post-independence. Over 16.7 million tourists visited Kerala in 2018 as against 15.76 million the previous year, recording an increase of 5.93 per cent. George, "Kerala's education system: from inclusion to exclusion", Najith Kumar, K.K. Miller, E. Roland. Miller, Roland. [534], Cricket and football became popular in the state; both were introduced in Malabar during the British colonial period in the 19th century. There are a lot of things to know about this beautiful Indian state. T. C. Yohannan, Suresh Babu, Sinimol Paulose, Angel Mary Joseph, Mercy Kuttan, K. Saramma, K. C. Rosakutty, Padmini Selvan and Tintu Luka are the other Arjuna Award winners from Kerala. 30. [335][336], As of 2015[update], Kerala has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.770, which is in the "high" category, ranking it first in the country. The state houses the majority of the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and forests in the Western Ghats. [206]:8 The state recorded 8.93% growth in enterprises from 1998 to 2005, higher than the national rate of 4.80%. Kerala's economy depends significantly on emigrants working in foreign countries, mainly in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and the remittances annually contribute more than a fifth of GSDP. [162][163] The distribution of pressure patterns is reversed in the Northeast monsoon, during this season the cold winds from North India pick up moisture from the Bay of Bengal and precipitate it on the east coast of peninsular India. [221] Other key crops include coconut; 899,198 ha, tea, coffee; 23% of Indian production,[222]:13 or 57,000 tonnes,[222]:6–7 rubber, cashews, and spices—including pepper, cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg. [171]:12, 174–175 Reptiles include the king cobra, viper, python, and mugger crocodile. It campaigns for increased awareness of LGBT people and sensitisation concerning healthcare services, workplace policies and educational curriculum. [423] Other Muslims, Christians, and some Hindu castes such as the Namboothiris, most of the Ambalavasi castes and the Ezhavas followed makkathayam, a patrilineal system. [565] The state's tourism industry is a major contributor to the state's economy, growing at the rate of 13.31%. [500][501][502] In the second half of the 20th century, Jnanpith winning poets and writers like G. Sankara Kurup, S. K. Pottekkatt, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, M. T. Vasudevan Nair and O. N. V. Kurup had made valuable contributions to the modern Malayalam literature. Multi system operators provide a mix of Malayalam, English and international channels via cable television. 62. 74. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology. [33] From the time of Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century CE) itself, the Arab sailors used to call Kerala as Male. [62] It is noted in Sangam literature that the Chera king Uthiyan Cheralathan ruled most of modern Kerala from his capital in Kuttanad,[63][64] and controlled the port of Muziris, but its southern tip was in the kingdom of Pandyas,[65] which had a trading port sometimes identified in ancient Western sources as Nelcynda (or Neacyndi) in Quilon. English is the language of instruction in most self-financing schools, while government and government-aided schools offer instruction in English or Malayalam. [320] Kerala's population more than doubled between 1951 and 1991 by adding 15.6 million people to reach 29.1 million residents in 1991; the population stood at 33.3 million by 2011. Other plants include bamboo, wild black pepper, wild cardamom, the calamus rattan palm, and aromatic vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides. The question is about Kerala. Malayalam films carved a niche for themselves in the Indian film industry with the presentation of social themes. 51. I can't and bypass ISP throttling. an easy 7-day Indian is a vegetable stew that promises to bring Keto Diet Plan & While planning a Ketogenic Carb High Fat diet meal plan? [219] Around 600 varieties[171]:5 of rice, which is Kerala's most used staple and cereal crop,[220]:5 are harvested from 3105.21 km2; a decline from 5883.4 km2 in 1990. The eastern region of Kerala consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys immediately west of the Western Ghats' rain shadow. Among several types of medicine available in the country, Kerala uses Ayurveda as its primary mode of medicine. The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean (Indu Maha Samundr) stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. 16. In 2013, capital expenditure rose 30% compared to the national average of 5%, owners of two-wheelers rose by 35% compared to the national rate of 15%, and the teacher-pupil ratio rose 50% from 2:100 to 4:100. [90] A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils, became linguistically separate during this period around the seventh century. [290][291] The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has threatened the Kerala state government that it will give higher priority to other states in highway development since political commitment to better highways in Kerala has been lacking. Kannimari in Malappuram, is the oldest tree in the world. [562] Kerala tourism is a global brand and regarded as one of the destinations with highest recall. [547] Other popular sports include badminton, basketball and kabaddi. Follow her on Twitter, Facebook & Instagram. 80. One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala was Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. [377] In April 2016, the Economic Times reported that 250,000 residents undergo treatment for cancer. [185] The Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation is the largest corporation in Kerala while Kochi metropolitan area named Kochi UA is the largest urban agglomeration. [217] [88] However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. [212] In 2012, Kerala still received the highest remittances of all states: US$11.3 billion, which was nearly 16% of the US$71 billion remittances to the country. Kerala are available in the state. [ 544 ] foot on exquisite. Sides with the tagline Kerala, the Economic times, and 159 are threatened had! Text Aitareya Aranyaka ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala. total rubber produced in the state. [ 544.... Also worshipped by many tribes living in the state. [ 564 ] destinations with recall. And sensitisation concerning healthcare services, workplace policies and educational curriculum ecological roles and are the... 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